You probably feel sad or angry at the thought of hunting ostriches, but for Ancient Egyptians it was a great sport. Ostriches run at speeds up to 45 miles per hour, and people loved zooming after them in their chariots.
The centre of Tutankhamun’s fan was a semicircle of gold, and there would have been ostrich feathers all around the curved edge. The picture on the fan shows Tutankhamun in his chariot, hunting an ostrich.
Notice Tutankhamun’s throne name Neb-kheperu-re in the cartouche in the top right corner, and the jaunty ankh symbol striding along in the bottom left corner. Amusingly, the ankh is also holding an ostrich feather fan!
There were five rooms in Tutankhamun’s tomb – the antechamber (containing the funeral beds, chariot parts, mannequin and other treasures), the annexe, the burial chamber and the treasury.
The treasury was the last room to be catalogued and photographed. Carter and his colleagues did not get to it until 1926, four whole years after the first discovery of the tomb!
The most striking piece of treasure in the treasury was this shrine with a statue of Anubis on top. It is made of wood and painted black. The ears, eyebrows, eye outlines and collar are all made of gold. The whites of the eyes are made from calcite and the pupils are obsidian. The claws are made of silver. What an amazing piece of craftsmanship!
I love this mannequin. It’s so simple and inexpensive compared to most of the bling which surrounded it in the first chamber of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Our best guess is that it was used as a dummy for storing the boy king’s many elaborate pectorals (a pectoral is an ornamental breastplate, like the Necklace of the Sun on the Eastern Horizon which we looked at on Day 12).
The mannequin (or mannikin, as Howard Carter spells it) is a life-sized model of Tutankhamun from the waist up, wearing a white linen tunic and a yellow flat-topped crown. It was ‘peering out’ from among the golden chariot parts when Carter first looked into the tomb on 26 November 1922. Here it is in his own handwriting, part of his diary entry that day:
Here is the mannequin being carried out of the tomb to a storeroom where it could be examined and catalogued.
And here it is in the storeroom.
And here is a newspaper article by Howard Carter describing how he found the tomb. There’s that mannequin again, peering out from the sepia page at thousands of eager readers.
The black and red cobra on the front of the crown depicts the goddess Wadjet. You wouldn’t mess with someone who had a cobra goddess on their head, would you?
Tutankhamun’s beautiful mirror case was in the shape of an ‘ankh’ hieroglyph. ‘Ankh’ meant life, and it also meant mirror, so the object itself is basically a pun.
In Ancient Egypt, people believed that life was a powerful force swirling through all the world. They believed that life was given by the gods, which is why you often see pictures and statues of Egyptian gods holding the ‘ankh’ symbol.
Ancient Egyptians used the word ‘ankh’ a great deal in everyday conversation. Their phrase for ‘please’ was ‘May you be healthy and alive!’
Tutanhkhamun’s throne name ‘Nebkheperure’ is part of the decoration inside the loop of the ankh on the mirror case. Can you spot it? If you missed Day 13 of this series, on how to write Tutankhamun’s names in hieroglyphs, you should have a quick read of that first.
Eternity is a very long time, so it stands to reason that board games should be available. It was common for Ancient Egyptian tombs to contain board games to keep the deceased occupied in the Field of Reeds. This ivory senet board is a particularly fine example.
Senet was played on a board with thirty cells. Two players lined up their pawns on their starting line and then took it in turns to move. The moves were dictated not by dice but by the throw of four black and white senet sticks.
We know this senet board belonged to Tutankhamun because it has his throne name written on it in hieroglyphics. Can you spot his name in the inscription above?
This painting from Nefertari’s tomb shows her playing senet in the afterlife.
Below is another popular board game, discovered by Howard Carter as it happens, though not in Tutankhamun’s tomb. It is called hounds and jackals. The hounds and jackals race each other along parallel tracks towards the finishing hole.
The hieroglyph for a senet board was mn (pronounced men or mun) and it looked like a senet board viewed from the side. If you recognize it that’s because it’s part of the name of the God Amun and therefore also Tutankhamun’s name.
As we saw when we looked at the paintingsofNebamun, the craftspeople who created the artwork in tombs were more interested in portraying an ideal picture of life than a realistic one.
That said, I believe that some people are too quick to exaggerate how weak and sickly the boy king Tutankhamun was, and how much that would have limited what he was able to do. Sure, he had a club foot, but that is no reason why he would not have been able to stand up in a skiff and chuck a harpoon at a fish, or to zoom around in his Ferrari in hot pursuit of ostriches.
This gilded statue of Tutankhamun the harpooner was just one of the tomb treasures that came to London in 2019 for the ‘Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh’ exhibition at the Saatchi Gallery. See if you can spot it on the virtual walkthrough below.
By the time of Tutankhamun, chariots were being widely used in hunting and warfare. For an archer shooting arrows at an enemy army, a chariot provided a much more stable platform than a horse. Chariot riders could shoot arrows accurately even when their horse was at full gallop, 25 miles per hour. They were the heroes of the time, like Premier League footballers today.
There were parts at least four different chariots in Tutankhamun’s tomb. One of them is particularly small and speedy, and this is most likely the one the king used himself in ostrich hunts and battles.
Scientists who study Tutankhamun’s chariot always end up being incredibly impressed. The wheels, the tyres, the axle, the bearings, the lubrication made of animal grease, all of these things show a very high level of engineering sophistication. One professor declared that the construction of Tutankhamun’s chariot was more impressive than the construction of the pyramids! Another called it ‘the Ferrari of antiquity.’
We know from studying Tutankhamun’s mummy that he broke his leg not long before he died. Was this the result of a chariot fall? Was he out ostrich hunting at the time?
If he did fall from his chariot, it was not because of any fault in the chariot’s design. It was more likely Tutankhamun’s own weakness, brought on by malaria, or perhaps instability caused by his club foot.
The above picture is a replica of the chariot. Below is a (colorized) photo of what it looked like when Carter first set eyes on it. Not quite as shiny!
Throughout history and throughout the world, could there be any greater symbol of power and dominion than a golden throne? This one belonging to Tutankhamun is eye-wateringly beautiful, covered not only with gold leaf but also silver and semi-precious stones.
The picture on the back panel shows the young pharaoh being anointed with perfume by his wife Anknesenamun. The legs of the chair have lion’s heads and paws.
There were three golden funeral beds in the antechamber of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Howard Carter noted in his diary the ‘grotesque shadows’ cast on the wall by these animal-headed funeral beds.
The one in the middle is cow-headed. The one on the right (tail only visible) is leopard-headed. The one on the left is a crazy mashup of different animal parts. It has a hippo’s head, a lion’s body, and a crocodile’s tail. In its open mouth, you might just be able to make out her ivory teeth and red-stained tongue.
Originally, these beds would have been used to mummify bodies, but in the tomb they serve as excellent shelves for Tutankhamun’s treasure. The white wooden boxes beneath the ‘heavenly cow’ are full of bread and meat, to keep the boy king well fed on his journey to the afterlife.
Despite popular belief to the contrary, Tutankhamun’s tomb was not discovered in pristine condition. It had already been ransacked by thieves in ancient times. Around 60% of the small ornaments and jewellery were taken.
A lot was left, though. The four chambers of the tomb (antechamber, annexe, burial chamber and treasury) contained five thousand separate objects.
This ‘lotus chalice’ was one of the first things that Howard Carter clapped eyes on when he peered into the tomb by candlelight on that incredible day in 1923. It is an alabaster goblet in the shape of a white lotus flower.
Carter nicknamed it the ‘wishing cup’ because of the message written on it in hieroglyphs. The text reads: ‘May your spirit live, may you spend millions of years, you who love Thebes, sitting with your face to the north wind, your eyes beholding happiness.’
Carter so loved that inscription, he had it written on his own tombstone.
Both names of Tutankhamun (personal name and throne name) were inscribed in the centre of the lotus chalice. See if you can make out each individual hieroglyph.